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Present Participle, Past Participle
Copyright by englisch-hilfen.de

1. Present participle

The present participle is often used when we want to express an active action. In English we add -ing to the infinitive of the verb.

  • Progressive Tenses

    He is reading a book.

    He was reading a book.

  • Gerund

    Reading books is fun.

    He likes reading books.

  • Adjective

    Look at the reading boy.

  • Together with other words

    He came reading around the corner.

    He sat reading in the corner.

    I saw him reading.

2. Past participle

The past participle is often used when we want to express a passive action. In English we add -ed to the infinitive of regular verbs. We use the 3rd column of the table of the irregular verbs.

  • Perfect Tenses

    He has forgotten the pencil.

    He had forgotten the pencil.

  • Passiv voice

    A house is built.

    A house was built.

  • Adjective

    Look at the washed car.

  • Together with other words

    The car washed yesterday is blue.

    He had his car washed.


Prepositions "On," "At," and "In"
Copyright by talkenglish.com


Used to express a surface of something:

  • I put an egg on the kitchen table.

  • The paper is on my desk.

Used to specify days and dates:

  • The garbage truck comes on Wednesdays.

  • I was born on the 14th day of June in 1988.

Used to indicate a device or machine, such as a phone or computer:

  • He is on the phone right now.

  • She has been on the computer since this morning.

  • My favorite movie will be on TV tonight.

Used to indicate a part of the body:

  • The stick hit me on my shoulder.

  • He kissed me on my cheek.

  • I wear a ring on my finger.

Used to indicate the state of something:

  • Everything in this store is on sale.

  • The building is on fire.


Used to point out specific time:

  • I will meet you at 12 p.m.

  • I will meet you at noon.

  • The bus will stop here at 5:45 p.m.

Used to indicate a place:

  • There is a party at the club house.

  • There were hundreds of people at the park.

  • We saw a baseball game at the stadium.

Used to indicate an email address:

  • Please email me at abc@defg.com.

Used to indicate an activity:

  • He laughed at my acting.

  • I am good at drawing a portrait.


Used for unspecific times during a day, month, season, year:

  • She always reads newspapers in the morning. (but 'at night')

  • In the summer, we have a rainy season for three weeks.

  • The new semester will start in March.

Used to indicate a location or place:

  • She looked me directly in the eyes.

  • I am currently staying in a hotel.

  • My hometown is Los Angeles, which is in California.

Used to indicate a shape, color, or size:

  • This painting is mostly in blue.

  • The students stood in a circle.

  • This jacket comes in four different sizes.

Used to express while doing something:

  • In preparing for the final report, we revised the tone three times.

  • A catch phrase needs to be impressive in marketing a product.

Used to indicate a belief, opinion, interest, or feeling:

  • I believe in the next life.

  • We are not interested in gambling.


In general, we use:

  • at for a POINT

  • in for an ENCLOSED SPACE

  • on for a SURFACE



at the corner in the garden on the wall
at the bus stop in London on the ceiling
at the door in France on the door
at the top of the page in a box on the cover
at the end of the road in my pocket on the floor
at the entrance in my wallet on the carpet
at the crossroads in a building on the menu
at the front desk in a car on a page

Look at these examples:

  • Jane is waiting for you at the bus stop.

  • The shop is at the end of the street.

  • My plane stopped at Dubai and Hanoi and arrived in Bangkok two hours late.

  • When will you arrive at the office?

  • Do you work in an office?

  • I have a meeting in New York.

  • Do you live in Japan?

  • Jupiter is in the Solar System.

  • The author's name is on the cover of the book.

  • There are no prices on this menu.

  • You are standing on my foot.

  • There was a "no smoking" sign on the wall.

  • I live on the 7th floor at 21 Oxford Street in London.

Notice the use of the prepositions of place at, in and on in these standard expressions:



at home in a car on a bus
at work in a taxi on a train
at school in a helicopter on a plane
at university in a boat on a ship
at college in a lift (elevator) on a bicycle, on a motorbike
at the top in the newspaper on a horse, on an elephant
at the bottom in the sky on the radio, on television
at the side in a row on the left, on the right
at reception in Oxford Street on the way


Conditional Sentences / If-Clauses Type I, II und III
Copyright by ego4u.com
→ It is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled.
If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation.
→ It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled.
if + Simple Past, Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)
If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.
→ It is impossible that the condition will be fulfilled because it refers to the past.
if + Past Perfect, Conditional II (= would + have + Past Participle)
If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.


The mystery of two oceans. Chapter One. Interrupted conversation.
"The mystery of two oceans." by Grigory Adamov
Chapter One. The interrupted conversation.
It was a little before the dawn. From a room on the thirteenth floor, a faint beam of light was shining through a gap between thick curtains into the wet blackness of a yard.
The cone of glow, from a little reading lamp under a black lampshade, was illuminating a little spot on a map, that was spread out on the table. Everything around was engulfed in thick darkness.
Two men leaned over the map. Their faces were invisible. Only their eyes were twinkling. The one had cold, narrow eyes. The other's eyes were burning, deep and wide. Two figures appeared like vague shapes.
Sitting by the table, the strong stocky man, who had a military bearing, raised his head. Keeping his finger on the map, he asked:
"Do you know the accurate coordinates for Sargasso Station?"
"No, I don't, Captain."
"I've asked you many times, Krok, don't answer me like that."
Krok stood up. He was very tall and massive, with long hands.
"I'm sorry, Matvey Petrovich", he said with a muffled voice. "I always forget it."
"Your forgetfulness could be very expensive to us, in the future. You are Krok to me, and only Krok, and to you I'm only Matvey Petrovich Ivashev, the Yakut and an engineer. Remember this!"
Matvey spoke very correct Russian, with solid and clear pronunciation, with that kind of formality that showed he wasn't a native speaker.
"Yes, Matvei Petrovich! It doesn't happen again", bowing a little, Krok went on: "I repeat that I don't know the station coordinates, yet. I should learn it on arrival. I think the station will be close this point". He put his wide palm with long fingers on the lit spot on the map and using the sharpened pencil, drew a circle, east of the Bahamas.
"Well, it isn't too much. As soon as the correct coordinates will be known, you should give them to the 'Lady Macbeth', immediately. She will inform you about the time that you have to launch 'The Belts'. Your call sign is 'INA2', the 'Lady Macbeth' has 'ACIT'"
"Yes, Matvei Petrovich! Does she know that a hydroplane have to pick me up?"
"Of course" In this moment, it seemed to Krok as Matvei smiled kindly. "We won't allow Anna Nikolaevna will weep over her fiance's body."
Krok bowed frostily, kept silence a little and asked hesitantly:
"I would like, Matvei Petrovich, to repeat again conditions of our agreement. I must inform you about the coordinates of ship's first long halt, and it's enough. And your duty is to achieve the release of Anna Nikolaevna. I hope that now, when I accepted the terms, she is free. Isn't she?"
"I'm sure she is. After our agreement, I sent the radiogram immediately. Regarding our conditions, we are waiting from you the information about the long stopovers on the ship's path."
Krok shuddered and hastily said with anxiety in his voice:
"How is it? On the ship's path? But we agreed about only the first stopover! And after my first message I will be picked up by the hydroplane from the 'Lady Macbeth'. I don't understand, Matvei Petrovich... You are changing our previous agreements. We didn't discuss it."
"Well, Krok, is it really important? The General Staff made this minor changing, for prevent possible mistakes, that can interfere with our use of your first message. Is it need to discuss it? A few days' probable delay of your escape on our ship, is only a slight inconvenience for you."
"No, no, Matvei Petrovich" Krok told excitedly "According to your words, I must constantly inform you. It isn't the same."
"What's the difference, dear Krok?", Matvei grinned. "One or twice? It's just the same, basically. But if you refused I can report to The General Staff about it. Anna Nikolaevna would be sad to return again in a unpleasant place."
Krok crossed the room in two strides repeatedly, rubbing his shaved chin nervously. Finally he stood next the table and said hoarsely: "Matvei Petrovich, I don't mind. But I would like to be sure. You have to give me the word of a nobleman... the word of a samurai that Anna Nikolaevna is coming out of the game at this moment and I will be picked up from the ship before his coming to final destination in any case."
"Krok! You can be sure that your wishes will be fulfilled. I'm giving you my word. By the way, Krok, when will your cruise end? Do you understand, how it is important for us, to know that for your second demand?"
Krok bowed your head and kept silent. The strip of light dropped on his high forehead. Blobs of sweat were shining on it. Krok pulled out a handkerchief and wiped the sweat, he breathed deeply and remainde quiet.
"Well," Matvei insisted and wouldn't wait for the answer "Don't be shy. How we can prepare your escape on our ship if we don't know how much time we have?"
"I don't know" Krok was answered blankly, without raising his head and sitting on the chair at the opposite side of the table.
"It is impossible", Matvei protested and flopped his palm down on the map. "You make these demands from me, but you can't give me the ability to do them. It does not make sense. And finally, what is difference between the information about coordinates and that about the date of arrival? Why do you give the first one and refuse to give me second? It is typical contradictions of your wide Slavic soul"
Matvei leaned back on his chair with annoyance, sitting cross-legged and knocking on the desk with his fingers.
"Stop putting on an act!", he continued strong after a moment of silence. "I should know the time of arrival. I am going to terminate our agreement if you don't tell me the time. And that is not all. We will not be interested for your welfare. Don't forget that old Abrosimov has given us all your bills (IOUs). And I have kept your note to me too. Well...", Matvei impatiently said. "Would you like to quarrel over trivial details with friends?"
Krok stood up impulsively, walked across the room twice and stammered:
"All right. But i'm not sure... I have heard that date of arrival is ordered on August 23rd"
It seemed Matvei got an electric shock. He jumped up quickly and sat down slowly. His yellow face was frozen and his narrow eyes were closed.
"Really?" he murmured thoughtfully trying to restrain his excitement. "August 23rd. It is... It is very interesting" He paused and continued more quietly: "My dear Krok, everything is clear now. Certainly, We'll pick you up from the ship before August 23rd with the 'Lady Macbeth' or another of our ships. We will let you know in time..."  He peered at the space thoughtfully, as if he forgot about Krok, and slowly repeated: "August 23rd. What is it? Is it a coincidence or do they know? "
Finally Matvei bucked up, started playing with a pencil and changed the topic: "What will you do after the escape? You will be the a rich man!". And with a reserved smile he added, "You will have a good wife and an honorable father in law"
"I don't know yet", he replied reluctantly. "I'm going to USA, maybe. They have offered me the job many times"
"Oh! Krok", said Matvei resentfully. "If you intend to keep working, do you really think that as a good engineer and an expert of jet engines you wouldn't be valued in my country? I hope when you live in our county you will change your mind and your intentions. Well, back to business", Matvei leaned above the map and continued: "Gibraltar is the next most convenient point and there you will be met... " Suddenly not finishing a phrase he raised his head and listening intently.
Alarmed Krok turned his face to the door and froze in place. There were the barely listened rustles and sounds of moving in the sudden deathly silence. Matvei got up quietly and softly like cat.
"Attention!" he whispered "Put all papers and documents about the campaign on the table!"
He snatched from a pocket several thin papers, covered with rows of numbers, drawings and pictures and threw them on the table. After that, he ran to the room's corner and quickly but quietly pulled a drawer from a high bookcase, grabbed its contents and put them on the table too.
Meanwhile Krok fumbled with trembling hands in his pockets, getting out the papers. His actions weren't like Matvei's quick, clear and certain motions. Krok patted his pockets, picked up one document from the table, read it and hid in his pocket. After a moment he got it out and put on the table again.
"Are you sure that they ... they are here for us?", he asked with a deep interrupted whisper.
"Yes!", Matvei said sharply and leaning he pulled out a basin from under the bed. There was a short ring in the hall. Krok swayed and leaned his hand on the table. Even in the darkness of room it was clear that his face was pale.
"Throw all papers in this basin!", Matvei ordered. Krok felt that his hands were paralysed. He grabbed the papers from the desk and ran to the basin. Several papers fell to floor swaying.
"Are you crazy?" Matvei hissed, picking up the papers. "You will destroy us!"
There was the a second long buzz.
"Burn the papers and quickly put on your raincoat!", Matvei began to shift a heavy bookcase towards the door, with unexpected force. Loud kicks were heard from the hall. The next moment, they heard the crack of broken wood. The matches were breaking, burning and going out due to Krok's shaking hands.
"Damn!", Matvei swore. "How can you be such a coward? Put on the damned coat and come to the window! Quick!"
The bookcase was already near the door already, when the hall filled noise and stomping. The commanding voice said: "Ivashev! Open the door! We know that you're here!"
The flame burned in the corner and illuminated Krok's stooping figure which was covering the long black raincoat, and Matvei's stout body.
In one jamp, Matvei moved to the desk, turned off the lamp and pushed Krok to the window.
"Your life is now more valuable than mine", he whispered, putting a ring on a cord  in the Krok's hand. "The success of this deal, as well as the victory or defeat of our nation, depend of your survival. Save yourself! I'll hold them off here as best I can and then I'll follow you. Leap into the window and jerk the ring!"
He pulled the heavy curtains apart and opened the window. The wet breeze blew on his face. The windowsill was covered with raindrops. In the distance, out of dark of night, through the rain and mist, appeared the orange auras of the rare suburban streetlights of Leningrad.
The door was blocked by the heavy bookshelf. There was a sound of splitting wood as the door fractured into several pieces. Krok stood on the windowsill, clutching onto the window frame in indecision. There was the fourteen floors black deep under him.
"Just leap, damn it", growled Matvei, gasping in rage. He pulled Krok's hand with intense force, and pushed him into darkness.
Screaming Krok fell, and at once the pop like a sound of opening a bottle of champagne was heard.
Matvei looked out the window, listening intently, then nodded and turned abruptly to the door. In the faint light of fire he saw the bookshelf swung under the onset. Stirred up the ash in the basin, he ran to the barricade. At that moment, the strong hit blew up the door and upset the bookcase. There was a crack of thunder, a crackle and a tinkling of broken glass in the room. Through the broken door,men walked in, trampling over the fallen bookcase. Burning lamps illuminated the floor with scattered books and fragments of broken glass. Among them, Matvei lied motionless, his body half pinned to the bookcase. Blood from his broken head, covering his face.
"Erofeev and Petrov! Help the injured!", the order was sounded. "Maksimov! Call the ambulance! Kovalenko, come to me! Help to put out the fire! Tear off the curtain"
The young commander, wearing the uniforms of lieutenant, ran to the basin. Snatching the curtain from Kovalenko hands, he used it to cover the burning papers in the basin.
"Take the curtain, before the fire goes out", he said to his assistant. "Don't press heavy to save the ashe"
The lieutenant spun to the injured man, who was already lied on the wide leather sofa. Erofeev and Petrov were washing off blood from his head. After five minutes his weak moan was heard. Matvei opened his eyes, and the first person he saw was the young officer leaning over him and gazing at his face.
"Hello, captain Mazda!", the lieutenant said. "How are you feeling?" Matvei raised his head, quickly looked around and closing his eyes leaned back on the pillow.
"I object to... this wild attack... I demand that you bring me to the consulate immediately", he said with the faint voice.
"The engineer Ivashov is the Soviet citizen, and his apartment isn't covered by the extraterritorial rights", the lieutenant responded smiling. "You had to open the door and called your name, captain. Maybe, in that case, we could make our acquaintance more peaceful"
Matvei didn't answer, lying motionless with closed eyes.
"It seems, he lost consciousness", Erofeev noted.
"The ambulance arrives in ten minutes", Maksimov reported, coming into the room.
"Good! They will bring him to life. Meanwhile, make him a first bandaging. Then, search through the room. Sergeev, you stay here. All found papers - put on the table. Do it accurately and quickly!"
He turned to the corner. The basin, which was covered by a curtain, stopped smoking. Suddenly, the lieutenant gazed at the moving curtains of other window. He ran to it rapidly.
"Sergeev, did you open this window?"
"No sir, I didn't. Probably, it was opened previously, before we came in"
The lieutenant pulled the curtains appart and looked out the window. He saw nothing in the black deep below.
The lieutenant shut the window.
"Sergeev, give me a lamp!"
Under the bright light, using the lens [loupe glasses], he scanned the windowsill.
"Somebody has stood here, recently. The rain hasn't washed away the traces, yet", he said quietly.
Using the penknife, he carefully picked up the tiny bit of mud, which was thin and black, weighing less a penny, and put it on his palm.
"'A bit of tobacco, ash and soil", he said. Sniffing it and thinking a moment, he added: "It is from a cigarette butt that was stuck to a shoe sole"
"It's clear, sir", Sergeev said, lighting the lamp. "Obviously, a man stood here"
"Yes, but who was it?", the lieutenant asked thoughtfully. He explored the windowsill with the lens again. His conviction increased and he continued in a quiet voice, gazing at the windowsill: "There was a tall man. He has large feet. But, who is he? And, which way did he leave? Did he use the rope to descend from 14th floor? This is incredible!"
The lieutenant opened the window again and began to explore the outside sill with the lens. There weren't traces, scratches or damages on it.
"Sergeev, go down with Maksimov to the yard under this window and explore it"
The lieutenant pulled out the notebook, ripped out a sheet and wrapped the clue in it. He slipped the resulting packadge between two pages of his notebook. Then, he looked closely at the basin. Under the curtain he found the heap of half-burnt papers, notebooks and pictures. The lieutenant was picking up carefully all ashy sheets, learning and laying them on the table over the map. He inspected the mark on the map . There was a circle drawn east of the Bahamas, in the The Sargasso Sea. After thinking a moment, he took one of burnt paper. It was the records of [geographical] coordinates. The lieutenant concentrated on the learning new information. Suddenly he dropped it on the table, turned rapidly and jumped up. Next moment, two struggling men rolled on the floor. The knife fell near them with a brief iron clink.
After a moment, the captain Mazda was down on the floor, with his hands bound behind his back. The lieutenant called for Erofeev. Together they brought the captain on the sofa.
Probably, this time, the Japanese man was in faint, really. Sergeev and Maksimov came back. They brought the large black raincoat. There were plenty of flexible long thin bars, which were installed into the raincoat. It was like the skeleton of a big umbrella. The bottom parts of these bars were joined with firm silk cords, which converged to the wide silk belt.
"Where did you find this?" asked the lieutenant, peering the strange find with a perplexed look.
"Actually, under this window, sir", Sergeev replied. "It was in the tree branches".
"Now, it is all clear", the lieutenant said. "It's the portable parachute. Using it, the second, maybe a more dangerous man, jumped out of the room."
The siren sounds were heard from the outside. It was an ambulance. The captain Mazda, along with Erofeev and Kovalenko, were sent to the prison hospital.
The lieutenant and other soldiers continued their search into the apartment.
End of chapter one.

Cover me!
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Adding -ing/-ed
Copyright by englishclub.com

Often we need to add -ing or -ed to a verb to make other forms of the verb, for example:
I was talking when John arrived

Spelling Rule
Just add -ing or -ed to the end of the base verb:

  • work - working - worked

  • play - playing - played

  • dye - dyeing - dyed

  • open - opening - opened

(note: C=consonant; V=vowel)

If the base verb ends in

do this

and add

C + V + C and a stressed syllable double the final consonant -ing / -ed stop - stopping - stopped
begin - beginning
C + e remove e -ing / -ed phone - phoning - phoned
dance - dancing - danced
make - making
C + y change y to i -ed cry - crying - cried
ie change ie to y -ing lie - lying
die - dying
nothing -d lie - lied
die - died

Spelling of Verb + ING

For many verbs we make the ING form by simply adding -ING to end of the verb.

  • eat - eating

  • speak - speaking

  • cook - cooking

  • start - starting

  • do - doing

  • stay - staying

  • fix - fixing

  • try - trying

Verbs ending with -e (with the exception of verbs ending in -ee and -ie)

Drop the -e and add ING

  • hope - hoping

  • ride - riding

  • make - making

  • write - writing

Verbs ending with -ee

Just add -ING

  • agree - agreeing

  • flee - fleeing

  • see - seeing

Verbs ending with -ie

Change the -ie to -y and add -ING

  • die - dying

  • tie - tying

  • lie - lying

Verbs ending with one vowel and one consonant (with the exception of w, x, and y)

For one syllable verbs

double the consonant and add -ING

  • jog - jogging

  • sit - sitting

  • run - running

  • stop - stopping

For two syllable verbs

If the 1st syllable is stressed, just add ING

  • answer - answering

  • offer - offering

  • listen - listening

  • visit - visiting

If the 2nd syllable is stressed , double the consonant and add ING

  • admit - admitting

  • prefer - preferring

  • begin - begining


Copyright by wikipedia.org


Major value

Examples of major value
ct- /t/ ctenoid
gh- /g/ ghost, ghastly
-gh Ø dough, high
-ght /t/ right, daughter, bought
g in -gm, gn- or -gn Ø gnome, gnaw, diaphragm, signing, reign
h after ex Ø exhibit, exhaust
kn- /n/ knee, knock
-mb /m/ climb, plumber
mn- /n/ mnemonic
-mn /m/ hymn, autumn
sch- /sk/ school
wh- before o /h/ who, whole
wr- /r/ wrong
alf /ɑːf/ calf, half
alk /ɔːk/ walk, chalking, talkative
alm /ɑːm/ calm, almond, salmon
alt /ɔːlt/ alter, malt, salty, basalt
t in unstressed -sten, -stle, -ften Ø listen, rustle, soften
-le after a consonant /əl/ little, table
-que /k/ mosque, bisque
-ngue /ŋ/ tongue, harangue, meringue
-gue /ɡ/ catalogue, plague, colleague

Auxiliary Verbs "Will/Would" and "Shall/Should"
Copyright by TalkEnglish.com

The verbs will, would, shall, should, can, could, may, might, and must cannot be the main (full) verbs alone. They are used as auxiliary verbs only and always need a main verb to follow.


Used to express desire, preference, choice, or consent:

  • I will take this duty.

  • Will you stop talking like that?

Used to express the future:

  • It will rain tomorrow.

  • The news will spread soon.

Used to express capacity or capability:

  • This bucket will hold two gallons of water.

  • This airplane will take 200 passengers.

Used to express determination, insistence, or persistence:

  • I will do it as you say.

Would (past form of will)

Often used in auxiliary functions with rather to express preference:

  • I would rather go shopping today.

  • We’d rather say something than stay quiet.

Used to express a wish or desire:

  • I would like to have one more pencil.

Used to express contingency or possibility:

  • If I were you, I would be so happy.

Used to express routine or habitual things:

  • Normally, we would work until 6 p.m.


Mainly used in American English to ask questions politely (it has more usages in British English). For the future tense, will is more frequently used in American English than shall.

  • Shall we dance?

  • Shall I go now?

  • Let’s drink, shall we?

Often used in formal settings to deliver obligation or requirement:

  • You shall abide by the law.

  • There shall be no trespassing on this property.

  • Students shall not enter this room.

Should (past form of shall)

Often used in auxiliary functions to express an opinion, suggestion, preference, or idea:

  • You should rest at home today.

  • I should take a bus this time.

  • He should be more thoughtful in the decision-making process.

Used to express that you wish something had happened but it didn’t or couldn’t (should + have + past participle):

  • You should have seen it. It was really beautiful.

  • I should have completed it earlier to meet the deadline.

  • We should have visited the place on the way.

Used to ask for someone’s opinion:

  • What should we do now?

  • Should we continue our meeting?

  • Should we go this way?

  • Where should we go this summer?

Used to say something expected or correct:

  • There should be an old city hall building here.

  • Everybody should arrive by 6 p.m.

  • We should be there this evening.


Everyday idioms
Copyright by Everyday idioms

to have (something) both ways

Idiom: to have (something) both ways; used as a verb.

First Example: Mario has been dating Erika for six months, but he also likes Tina and would like to ask her out. Mario wants to have it both ways. He would like to date both Erika and Tina.

Meaning: to have (something or it) both ways means to get the best of a situation by getting the benefits of two opposite things. In this example, Mario likes his relationship with Erika, but he also likes Tina. However, he can't date both of them at the same time because he has been dating Erika for six months. This idiom can apply to any situation where there are two opposite things that can't be done at the same time. It's used as an infinitive in this example.

Second Example: John works long hours and makes a lot of money, but he would like to have more time off to do the things he enjoys. However, John can't have it both ways. He either works hard and makes a lot of money, or he takes more time off and makes less money.

Meaning: In this case, the two opposite things are working a lot and taking more time off. John can't make a lot of money if he does both of these things at the same time. He must choose one thing. In this example, it's used with the modal "can't."

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